Criminal Law Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 4 (May 1973), pp. 293-309


Dean Carlson poses the question: When a prosecutor refers to evidence outside the record in his summation, has he thereby violated the accused person's constitutional right to cross-examine the witnesses against him? The prevailing view is that this is reversible error only if the defendant can prove that the reference was highly prejudicial.

After a full analysis of all the leading decisions--and these are largely analogous in nature--the author proposes a new rule and a new approach to this unexplored area.

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