The purpose of this thesis is to give a comprehensive explanation of the worldwide trade and environment conflicts and a thorough analysis of the trade and environment debate between trade specialists and environmentalists. After a general introduction of the origin of and the critical issues involved in the trade and environment debate, this thesis discusses the complicated relation between trade and environment on the basis of economic theory and empirical studies. Then it examines the resolution of specific trade and environment conflicts within a multilateral trading system and the relative role of WTO in accommodating environmental interest into the trade liberalization. At last it comes to its conclusion that there is no inherent conflict between trade liberalization and environmental protection and trade and environment should go hand in hand to achieve a sustainable development and the improvement of human welfare as a whole.