Among the vast web of challenges before us in the wake of the new millennium population growth is one of the most worrying aspects of human existence. The consequences of the world's rapid population growth on human well-being and on the environment have been the subject of intense controversy for many years and got even more accentuated as the 1990s progress. However, the framework of international environmental law and agreement has for long failed to consider adequately the clear linkages between rapid population growth and environmental degradation. Thus, the study attempts to discuss and analyze competing for international perspectives, theories, policies and debates with a view that the future international political agenda reflects the changing paradigm. The thesis also attempts to undertake a critical overview of the last consensus document on population and development adopted by the world governments in the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994 and does a case study portrays the conflict of development with environment and how it may also come in conflict with the regulatory regime of the recipient country.