The emergence of an artificially constructed modern state with internal contradictions, sophisticated state apparatus, and weaponry, coupled with external forces has made Africa one of the most unstable regions in the world, and peace prospects a daunting task. The post-cold war era punctuated by forces of economic liberalization and dominance of the Breton Woods institutions in the economic management of the developing countries has not only accelerated the economic marginalization of Africa placing her at the fringes of the global economy but also wrought insecurity in their wake. This post-cold war and serves to emphasize the need for the OAU to reinvent itself to cope with these new challenges and became the present-day symbol and embodiment of the ideals of this pan-African movement. This thesis has explored the role of the OAU in regional conflict resolution and dispute settlement. It also characterizes conflicts in Africa and examines the OAU conflict resolution initiatives. The relationship between the OAU as a regional organization and the Premier global organization, the United Nations, in the arena of regional conflict resolution was also studied.