The modernization of EC Competition Law is discussed as a necessity on the European Union. Its counterpart, the U.S. Antitrust Law system followed a different evolution. The legislation, institutions and procedures remark the differences among these advanced systems of market control. The role of the EC Commission, national authorities and national courts of Member States will determine the elements to change. Its American counterpart, the Antitrust Division, the Federal Trade Commission, and the federal courts, developed the most effective and dynamic pathways for antitrust enforcing. The analysis of both frameworks must consider several factors, other that legal factors. The relevance of EC Competition Law must be observed in the context of new issues: EU enlargement, external relationship with third states, extraterritoriality of EC law application, etc

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