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Recently, the SEC has come under great scrutiny for how it conducts economic analysis around rulemakings, especially those associated with the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank or the Dodd-Frank Act) Dodd-Frank tasked the SEC with more than 100 rulemaking provisions. Perhaps no criticism had a more profound effect than the D.C. Circuit's decision in Business Roundtable v. SEC, which struck down the SEC's proxy access rule due to inadequate economic analysis.

Regulations are imperfect. They cannot be costlessly executed or enforced. Regulators also lack full information on the actual costs and benefits of proposed policies. For the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC or Commission), scholars note that the costs and benefits of proposed actions are especially difficult to generate because their rules frequently involve disclosure6 or a probabilistic prediction of future risky events. These challenges indicate that the SEC will sometimes misestimate quantified values of costs and benefits.